With the rise in social media usage, cyberbullying and online harassment have become an increasingly common issue. This type of behavior is often used a way to shame, ridicule, or hurt someone’s feelings, and can cause significant emotional distress.

This article will provide an overview of cyberbullying and online harassment, and the devastating effects they can have on both children and adults.

Definition of cyberbullying and online harassment

Cyberbullying and online harassment are forms of online abuse that occur when an individual or group uses technology to harass, threaten, or intimidate someone else. Cyberbullying can take the form of disrespectful comments and messages via social media, text message, email, instant messaging, gaming forums and websites. It can involve sharing embarrassing photos and videos on social media platforms such as YouTube, Instagram and Snapchat.

It includes spreading malicious rumors about someone on the Internet or sending threatening messages through apps such as Kik messenger.

Online harassment is a broader term that refers to any kind of behavior that seeks to control another individual’s life by means of aggressive tactics such as threats of violence or privacy invasion through hacking or targeted trolling campaigns. Examples include:

  • Spreading false information about someone on the Internet for the purpose of damaging their reputation.
  • Stalking an individual on social media platforms in order to gain access to personal information without permission.
  • Making repeated calls or messages with intimidating content.
  • Repeatedly sending unwanted unsolicited emails.
  • Recruitment into a hate speech campaign.
  • Engaging in cyberstalking by using digital trace tools (like IP logs) to track someone’s online activities.
  • Harassing someone by creating multiple fake social media accounts with the victim’s personal details associated with them.

Statistic of cyberbullying and online harassment

Research conducted by data-driven advocacy organization Ditch the Label has found that 42% of young people aged 11 to 20 from 15 countries have experienced cyberbullying, and 26% have been victims of online harassment. The U.S.-based National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children revealed that one in three children, or 34%, have been victims of cyberbullying at some point in their lives, a figure that’s even higher than alcohol misuse reported by secondary school students.

The United Nations’ International Telecommunication Union 2016 report meanwhile pointed out that 84% of internet users worldwide are concerned about online harassment. While these statistics are alarming, it’s important to consider the personal implications behind these numbers. Even with an awareness on the ubiquity of cyberbullying and online harassment in today’s digital era, those behind the keyboard may still be anonymous to their victim(s), making them “invisible” bullies who can easily wreak havoc on someone else’s life while their own is kept intact and secret away from blame and accountability.

Causes of Cyberbullying and Online Harassment

Cyberbullying and online harassment are serious issues in the digital age, and it’s important to understand the root causes of these negative behavior. It can be difficult to pinpoint the exact reason why someone may be engaging in cyberbullying or online harassment, but there are a few common triggers that may be contributing factors.

This section will explore the various reasons why individuals may be participating in cyberbullying or online harassment:

Anonymity of the internet

The anonymity of the internet can give individuals a false sense of security, leading them to become more bold or hostile in expression. The disconnect between their identity and the words they choose to use can have damaging effects on their behavior and the behavior of those around them. Such negative behaviors include cyberbullying – where someone posts mean comments about another individual online – as well as harassment, threats, and other offensive activities that generate distress for individuals or groups.

This effect is further compounded when coupled with the wide reach of digital media platforms, allowing malicious behavior from one person to acquire large-scale exposure overnight. This is why it is so important for us to recognize these behaviors early, put prevention strategies in place, and take active steps toward improved wellbeing.

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Lack of physical presence

A key cause of cyberbullying and online harassment is the lack of physical presence in the online environment. Cyberbullying behavior can be carried out by individuals who are anonymous or have multiple accounts, and it can often be difficult to trace them back to their true identities. Furthermore, this anonymity makes it easier for people to engage in malicious activities that they would not engage in face-to-face due to social accountability.

Without this accountability, people are more likely to feel empowered and will say things on the internet that they may not say in person. This sense of powerlessness creates a hostile environment that can lead to cyberbullying and other forms of online harassment.

Lack of education and awareness

A significant factor contributing to cyberbullying and online harassment is a lack of education and awareness among adults, children, and victims. Despite the widespread use of various forms of technology, many people may not understand the implications of their actions or words for themselves or others. Some adults also lack knowledge about how best to respond when cyberbullying or online harassment occurs in their community.

Without proper education, children and youth may not be aware they are participating in cyberbullying or online harassment at all. They may not understand that their words can have dire consequences for those they target – both immediate physical safety risks and long-term mental health concerns that can linger into adulthood even if the harassing behavior has stopped. Additionally, victims often find it difficult to stop the bullying as much of it happens within networks that are difficult to escape, such as social media sites with expansive friend lists; locked group chats; comments on YouTube videos; shared photos & rumors through messaging apps like Snapchat; etc.

A lack of educational campaigns highlighting the destructive nature of cyberbullying and online harassment contribute to a general unawareness about how this type of bullying is different from traditional face-to-face bullying – such as:

  • How quickly it can spread leading to far greater numbers of people who witness & read about the incident;
  • How the increased anonymity granted by technology can lead to crueler language than could otherwise be used;
  • Increased psychological damage caused by repeated exposure over an extended period; etc.

Bridging this perceived knowledge gap is essential in order for effective strategies against cyberbullying & online harassment to be put into place and implemented.

Effects of Cyberbullying and Online Harassment

Cyberbullying and online harassment can negatively impact many aspects of a person’s life. These include mental health, physical health, social relationships and academic performance. Various studies suggest that children and adolescents are most vulnerable to cyberbullying and online harassment.

In this article, we will look at some of the short and long-term effects of cyberbullying and online harassment:

Mental health issues

The effects of cyberbullying and online harassment can be very damaging, both mentally and emotionally. Victims often suffer from anxiety and depression brought on by an inability to cope with the negative comments they are receiving online. Low self-esteem can also develop due to constant comparison with others or feeling overwhelmed that nobody cares. In severe cases, victims may even become suicidal or engage in self-destructive behavior such as drug abuse or self-harm.

One potential consequence of cyberbullying is post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Victims may experience flashbacks, nightmares, and difficulty sleeping. They may become overwhelmed when exposed to reminders of their pain, either through direct interaction or indirect reminders such as social media messages or posts. Victims may also have difficulty regulating their emotions, difficulty eating and concentrating in class due to feelings of fearfulness or threat that can impair daily functioning.

Additionally, victims of cyberbullying are subject to long-term consequences that stretch beyond physical or mental health issues; academic achievement is at risk when students who’ve been bullied lack the confidence to succeed at school or are too overwhelmed by the situation to focus on studying. Long term academic underachievement impacts future possibilities for success resulting in economic disadvantage in adulthood as well as an increased risk for further victimization experiences throughout life.

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Low self-esteem

The effects of cyberbullying and online harassment can be long-lasting and detrimental to mental health. Victims of this type of abuse often develop issues such as low self-esteem and depression. These negative feelings can lead to even more troubling issues, such as reduced academic performance, social anxiety and withdrawal from friends, family and activities.

Victims also may begin to suffer physical symptoms if the bullying continues for an extended period – headaches, stomachaches and sleeping difficulties are just some of the possible side effects. In extreme cases, victims may express thoughts of suicide or attempt it.

Cyberbulling can take place in any platform – from social media networks, chat rooms, discussion forums or even games – all requiring careful supervision by parents and educators to protect victims from the emotional distress caused by this form of bullying.

Social isolation

The psychological effects of cyberbullying and online harassment can take a heavy toll on individuals who find themselves on the receiving end of malicious behavior from others. One such effect is social isolation, where someone being targeted may emotionally withdraw from friends, family, or other sources of support that can help them cope with their experiences. This can become more serious if they are also reluctant to tell family or other adults they trust what has happened and why they feel so isolated.

In extreme cases, social isolation could lead to feelings of depression, suicidal thoughts or even self-harm as victims may find it hard to believe that anyone could understand their experience. It is important for caregivers and educators to be aware of the potential signs of both cyberbullying victims or those conducting online harassment so that appropriate actions and resources can be used to support those in need.

Prevention and Solutions

Cyberbullying and online harassment are two of the dark sides associated with the use of social media. Unfortunately, it’s become a common problem among many users, from children to adults. This is why it’s important to be aware of the potential issues and learn how to prevent and respond to them.

In this article, we’ll discuss different solutions for preventing or addressing cyberbullying and online harassment:

Educate children and young adults

It is important to educate children and young adults on the dangers that come along with social media use. This can be done in an age-appropriate way, through conversations and small group classes that offer information about the potential dangers, such as identity theft and cyberbullying.

Parents can also ensure that their kids are aware of their own digital footprint and the importance of privacy settings. Young people should also be taught how to recognize a cyberbully’s tactics and encouraged to report any harassment or bullying they may experience or witness.

Additionally, parents should encourage their children to take a break from social media when needed in order to reduce feelings of stress or anxiety about online interactions.

Create awareness campaigns

Public awareness campaigns can be effective in helping to discourage cyberbullying. Through media such as television, newspaper, and radio outlets, public service announcements can effectively remind both parents and children that cyberbullying is wrong and should not be tolerated. The campaigns should emphasize that cyberbullies should stop their negative behavior and instead offer support to the victim.

Additionally, they can emphasize the consequences of cyberbullying, such as the potential for developing depression or suicidal tendencies in victims.

Throughout awareness campaigns, communities should also take steps to educate third-party bystanders – those not directly involved in cyberbullying – on how to respond if they encounter an instance of cyberbullying. This could include:

  • Providing tips for how bystanders can help victims by deflecting bullies’ attention away from them or reporting any instance of harassing behavior to an adult or authority figure.
  • Bystanders can also lend their voices in support of their peers when they see someone participating in online bullying by speaking out against it on social media sites or other online venues where bullying may occur.
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Use parental control software

Parental control software is an important tool for parents and guardians to help protect children from the potential harms of using social media and the internet. Parental control software helps secure digital spaces for children by allowing parents or guardians to block or filter websites, monitor device usage, set time limits, and review site activity.

For younger children, controls that allow parents or guardians to decide which programs can run on a child’s device can also be helpful in ensuring only age-appropriate content is accessed.

It is important to note that parental control software cannot prevent all instances of cyberbullying or online harassment as children might engage in activities on their phones with other devices such as friends’ phones or computers at school. Therefore, it is advisable for parents and guardians to be aware of the risks associated with technology use and have an open dialogue with their children about these issues on a regular basis.


In conclusion, cases of cyberbullying and online harassment are on the rise. The heavy use of social media has made this type of bullying easier to carry out since bullies can remain anonymous while carrying out their activities, which can lead to severe psychological consequences for the victims. It is important to remember that cyberbullying and online harassment are serious issues that should be taken seriously.

It is up to parents and teachers, as well as educators and other social media users, to help prevent or stop cyberbullying and online harassment from happening in their communities by:

  • Raising awareness about the issue
  • Educating kids about how to use social media responsibly
  • Teaching appropriate responses for handling such situations
  • Intervening when necessary
  • Providing a positive alternative activities in which children can participate together with friends.

It is only through continued vigilance by parents, educators and members of the public that we can work towards ending cyberbullying and online harassment for good.

Frequently Asked Questions

1. What is cyberbullying?

Cyberbullying involves the use of electronic devices, such as computers and smartphones, to deliberately harm or harass someone online. It includes sending hurtful messages or sharing embarrassing photos or videos without consent.

2. Who is most vulnerable to cyberbullying?

Anyone can be a target of cyberbullying, but teenagers and young adults are among the most vulnerable groups. Cyberbullying can happen to people of any gender, race or sexual orientation.

3. How can cyberbullying affect someone’s mental health?

Cyberbullying can have a profound impact on mental health, leading to depression, anxiety and even suicidal thoughts. The constant harassment and humiliation can cause victims to feel isolated, helpless and alone.

4. What can I do to prevent cyberbullying?

You can prevent cyberbullying by being mindful of what you share online, by reporting any abusive behavior to the authorities, and by supporting victims of cyberbullying. It’s important to be kind and respectful to others, and to speak out against bullying and harassment.

5. What are the legal consequences of cyberbullying?

Cyberbullying can result in serious legal consequences, including fines, probation, and even imprisonment in some cases. Cyberbullying is often a criminal offense, and can be prosecuted under different laws depending on the severity of the case.

6. How can I get help if I’m a victim of cyberbullying?

If you’re a victim of cyberbullying, it’s important to seek help immediately. You can talk to a trusted friend or family member, or seek support from a counselor or therapist. You can also report the bullying to the authorities or speak to a lawyer about your legal options.